Showering and Loneliness: Participants from Israel (#199)

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APA Style

Melissa McDonald and M. Brent Donnellan. Showering and Loneliness: Participants from Israel. (2014, August 06). Retrieved 00:55, February 22, 2018 from

MLA Style

"Showering and Loneliness: Participants from Israel" Melissa McDonald and M. Brent Donnellan. 06 Aug 2014 16:53 22 Feb 2018, 00:55 <>

MHRA Style

'Showering and Loneliness: Participants from Israel', Melissa McDonald and M. Brent Donnellan, , 06 August 2014 16:53 <> [accessed 22 February 2018]

Chicago Style

"Showering and Loneliness: Participants from Israel", Melissa McDonald and M. Brent Donnellan, , (accessed February 22, 2018)


Showering and Loneliness: Participants from Israel [Internet]. Melissa McDonald and M. Brent Donnellan; 2014 Aug 06, 16:53 [cited 2018 Feb 22]. Available from:

Reference to Original Report of Finding Bargh, J. A., & Shalev, I. (2012). The substitutability of physical and social warmth in daily life. Emotion, 12(1), 154-162
Title Showering and Loneliness: Participants from Israel
If the original article contained multiple experiments, which one did you attempt to replicate? e.g., you might respond 'Study 1' or 'Experiment 4'. Study 1b
Link to PDF of Original ReportView Article
Brief Statement of Original Result The authors predicted that trait loneliness would be positively associated with warmer showers and baths. They tested this prediction with a correlational study (N = 41 community members). Three showering/bathing items were averaged to form a composite measure labeled “Physical Warmth Extraction.” The composite was correlated with Loneliness (r=.37, p<.05). The correlation for the item about warm water temperatures was not statistically significant(r=.34, p <.05).
Type of Replication Attempted Fairly Direct Replication
Result Type Failure to Replicate
Difference? Not Applicable
Number of Subjects 356
Number of Subjects in Original Study 41
Year in which Replication Attempt was Made 2014
Name of Investigators (Real Names Required) Melissa McDonald and M. Brent Donnellan
Detailed Description of Method/Results Participants were 356 Jewish adults living in Israel who completed an online survey (Dr. McDonald oversaw data collection during her post-doc in Israel). Showering/Loneliness measures were taken from Bargh and Shalev (2012). Loneliness was assessed using the 3 item loneliness scale developed by Hughes et al. (2004) based on the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell et al., 1980) using a 4-point scale (1=Never to 4=Often). The Physical Warmth index was created by standardizing the three bathing/showering items and averaging them into a composite after the frequency and temperature items were reverse coded so that higher scores indicate more frequent baths/showers and warmer baths/showers.

There was no evidence for an association between loneliness (M = 2.27; SD = .74, alpha = .86) and the Physical Warmth Index (r = -.025, p = .645, n = 356). The hypothesis relevant correlation between the water temperature item and the loneliness scale was not statistically distinguishable from zero (r = -.054, p = .314, n = 353).

These results generally mimic the results reported in Donnellan et al. (in press) and the two other studies we have uploaded to the PFD. However, these results do not replicate the correlation between water temperature and trait loneliness reported in Study 1b of Bargh and Shalev (2012).

Any Known Methodological Differences
(between original and present study)?
Participants were from different countries. Original data were collected by recruiting participants "on the town green of a small New England city" (B & S, 2012, p. 156). The measure of loneliness was different but previous work by Hughes et al. (2004) indicated that the short scale was strongly associated the Revised UCLA scale (r = .82, n = 299).
Email of Investigator
Name of individuals who
actually carried out the project
McDonald Collected Data. Donnellan Analyzed Data.
Location of Projectonline in Israel
Characteristics of Subjects
(subject pool, paid, etc.)
Adults tested through internet
Where did these subjects reside?Israel
Was this a Class Project?No
Further Details of Results as pdf PDF

Additional Comments
Email of Original Investigator
Quantitive Information
I have complied with ethical standards for experimentation on human beings and, if necessary, have obtained appropriate permission from an Institutional Review Board or other oversight group.
TAG: Attention TAG: JDM TAG: Language TAG: Learning TAG: Memory TAG: Perception TAG: Performance TAG: Problem Solving TAG: Social Cognition TAG: Social Psychology TAG: Thinking

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